Practical ecological knowledge for the temperate reader.

Rubus Sp. - Raspberry & Blackberry

Rose Family

"Generally shrub; (dioecious).
Stem: persisting 1–2 years, rooting at tips and/or nodes or not, erect or arched to mounded or prostrate, 5-angled or not, hairy or glabrous, glaucous or not, stalked glands present or not; bristles or prickles 0–many, prickles stout and wide-based or weak and slender, straight or curved.
Leaf: simple, palmately lobed, to palmately compound, leaflets 3 or 5(11), toothed, abaxially ± glabrous to densely hairy; stipules thread-like to ovate or elliptic.
Inflorescence: raceme- or panicle-like cyme, axillary or terminal; pedicel bractlets 0.
Flower: generally bisexual; hypanthium flat to saucer-shaped, bractlets 0; sepals persistent, reflexed to ascending, ovate or lance-ovate, hairy or glabrous, stalked or sessile glands present or not, tip pointed, prickly or not; petals widely obovate, spoon-shaped, or elliptic, white to ± pink or magenta; stamens generally >> 20, filaments thread- or strap-like; pistils 5–150, receptacle flat or convex to conical, spongy, generally elongated in fruit, ovaries superior, hairy or glabrous, styles long, slender or short, thick, glabrous or hairy; ovules 2, 1 maturing.
Fruit: fleshy-coated achenes, aggregate of few to many, yellow, orange, red, or black, generally falling as unit, separating with (blackberry-type) or without (raspberry-type) receptacle attached.
400–750 species: worldwide except Antarctica, especially northern temperate. (Latin: red; ancient name for bramble, blackberry)
Unabridged references: [Alice & Campbell 1999 Amer J Bot 86:81–97]" [Jepson]

Local Species;

  1. Rubus arcticus - nagoonberry [E-flora]
  2. Rubus discolor - Himalayan blackberry [E-flora]
  3. Rubus chamaemorus - cloudberry [E-flora]
  4. Rubus idaeus - red raspberry [E-flora]
  5. Rubus laciniatus - cutleaf evergreen blackberry [E-flora]
  6. Rubus lasiococcus - dwarf bramble [E-flora]
  7. Rubus leucodermis - black raspberry [E-flora]
  8. Rubus nivalis - snow bramble [E-flora]
  9. Rubus parviflorus - Thimbleberry [E-flora]
  10. Rubus pedatus - five-leaved bramble [E-flora]
  11. Rubus spectabilis - Salmonberry [E-flora]
  12. Rubus ursinus & ssp macropetalus - trailing blackberry [E-flora]


Ecological Indicator Species

"Ecological Indicator Information: A shade-intolerant, sub montane to montane, European deciduous shrub introduced to North America (presently transcontinental). Species occurs on water-shedding and water-receiving sites in boreal. temperate, cool semiarid, and cool mesothermal climates; on fresh to very moist, nitrogen-rich soils. Plentiful in initial communities on cutover and burnt sites; scattered in open-canopy, immature forests. Often associated with Epilobium angustifolium, Pteridium aquilinum, and Rubus parviflorus. May hinder natural regeneration, and establishment of shade-intolerant conifers. Nitrophytic species characteristic of disturbed sites." [IPBC-E-flora]

"Ecological Indicator Information: A shade-tolerant/intolerant, submontane to subalpine, North American deciduous shrub distributed equally in the Pacific, Cordilleran, and Central regions. Occurs on nitrogen-rich soils within boreal, temperate, and mesothermal climates; its occurrence decreases with increasing elevation and latitude and increases with increasing continentality. Very common in open-canopy forests and early-seral com­munities on cutover and/ or burnt sites where it may hinder natural regeneration and growth of shade-intolerant conifers. Usually associated with Alnus rubra, Athyrium filix-femina, Epilobium angustifolium, Oplopanax horridus, Rubus spectabilis, Sambucus racemosa, Streptopus roseus, and Tiarella unifoliata. A nitrophytic species characteristic of Moder and Mull humus forms.[IPBC-E-flora]

"Ecological Indicator Information: A shade-tolerant, montane to subalpine, Asian and Western North American forb distributed equally in the Pacific and Cordilleran regions. Occurs in boreal and cool temperate climates on fresh to very moist, nitrogen-poor soils; its occurrence increases with increasing elevation and precipitation and decreases with increasing latitude. Common in semi-open coniferous forests on water­shedding and water-receiving sites. Typically associated with Blechnum spicant, Clintonia uniflora, Rhododendron albiflorum, Rhytidiopsis robusta, Vaccinium alaskaense, and V. membranaceum. An oxylophytic species characteristic of Mor humus forms.[IPBC-E-flora]

"Ecological Indicator Information: A shade-tolerant/intolerant, submontane to montane, Western North American deciduous shrub distributed more in the Pacific than the Cordilleran region. Occurs in maritime to submaritime cool mesothermal climates on moderately dry to fresh. nitrogen-medium soils; its occurrence decreases with increasing elevation and continentality. Common but scattered in forest understories on disturbed, water-shedding sites. often plentiful in disturbed and early seral communities on cutover-and/or burnt sites. Usually associated with Anaphalis margaritacea, Epilobium angustifolium. Gaultheria shallon. Kindbergia oregana, Mahonia nervosa, and Pteridium aquilinum. Characteristic of young-seral mesothermal forests.[IPBC-E-flora]

Species Mentioned: Raspberry - Rubus Sp. [FFWE]

Edible Uses

Other Uses

Medicinal Uses

BLACKBERRY (Rubus spp.) [HMH Duke]
"Activities (Blackberry) — Antibacterial (1; MAD); Antidote (f; DEM); Antiinflammatory (1; APA); Antioxidant (1; JNU); Antitumor (f; APA); Apoptotic (f; JNU); Astringent (1; APA; EFS PH2); Depurative (f; DEM; EFS); Detoxicant (1; JNU); Diaphoretic (f; MAD); Diuretic (f; DEM;EFS); Fungicide (f; MAD); Hemostat (1; APA); Hypocholesterolemic (1; JNU); Stimulant (f; DEM); Tonic (f; DEM; EFS)."
"Dosages (Blackberry) — 1–2 tsp chopped leaf/cup water, up to 6 ×/day; 4 tsp (~4.4 g) leaf in hot tea; 1.5 g leaf/cup tea, 2–3 ×/day (PH2); 1–2 tsp powdered bark/cup water; up to 2 tsp tincture/day (APA); 1500 mg root tea up to 3 ×/day (APA); 20–30 grains powdered root bark (FEL); 2–4 ml liquid root extract (PNC)."
"Extracts (Blackberry) — Anthocyanins and polyphenols in berries of several Ribes, Rubus, and Vaccinium spp. have in vitro antiradical activity on chemically generated superoxide radicals. The extracts also inhibit xanthine oxidase. All crude extracts were highly active toward chemically generated superoxide radicals. Ribes nigrum extracts exhibited most activity, being the richest in both anthocyanins and polyphenols. But Ribes rubrum extracts seem to contain more active substances (X1332092)"


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