Practical ecological knowledge for the temperate reader.

Plantago major - Common Plantain

Plantago major is a PERENNIAL growing to 0.1 m (0ft 4in) by 0.1 m (0ft 4in) at a medium rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 5 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from May to September, and the seeds ripen from Jul to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Wind.The plant is self-fertile.
It is noted for attracting wildlife. [PFAF]
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil. The plant can tolerate maritime exposure.[PFAF]

  • Plantago asiatica auct. non L. [E-flora][ThePlantList 1/3 confidence]
  • Plantago halophila E.P. Bicknell [E-flora]
  • Plantago major subsp. intermedia (DC.) Arcang. [E-flora]
  • Plantago major var. asiatica auct. non (L.) Decne. [E-flora][ThePlantList 1/3 confidence]
  • Plantago major var. intermedia (DC.) Pilg. [E-flora]
  • Plantago major var. pachyphylla Pilg. [E-flora]
  • Plantago major var. pilgeri Domin [E-flora]
  • Plantago major var. scopulorum Fr. & Broberg [E-flora]
  • Plantago borysthenica. [PFAF]
  • Plantago dregeana. [PFAF]
  • Plantago latifolia. [PFAF]
  • Plantago sinuata.[PFAF]

Origin Status: Exotic [E-flora]
General: Perennial herb from a fibrous root; stems erect, several, simple, smooth or stiff-hairy, 5-50 cm tall. [IFBC-E-flora]
Habitat: Mesic to dry lawns, fields, roadsides and waste places in the lowland, steppe and montane zones.[IFBC-E-flora]
Range: Common in SW BC, less frequent elsewhere; introduced from Eurasia. [IFBC-E-flora] USDA Flower Colour: Green


Edible Uses

Medicinal Uses

P. major is an old medicinal plant that has been known for centuries. In Scandinavia this plant is mostly known for its wound healing properties. The common Norwegian and Swedish name for P. major is groblad meaning ‘healing leaves’. [TUCC]

"Historically plantain leaf was famous as a wound healer and an antidote to poisons. " [McIntyre AHTC]

"The traditional use of P. major in wound healing is quite old. It was described by the Greek physician Dioscorides in ‘De materia medica’ in the first century. The leaves were prescribed for treatment of dog bites ( Roca-Garcia, 1972). From the ‘Vølsuga saga’ it is known that the Vikings used P. major leaves for wound healing ( Nielsen, 1969). P. major was also described in the 12–13th century by the Islamic author Ibn El Beithar having adopted the knowledge from Greek medicine ( Fleurentin et al., 1983). Henrik Harpestreng († 1244) from Denmark wrote in ‘Liber Harbarum’ that P. major could heal everything that was torn apart. Mixed with honey it was recommended on wounds. Boiled with butter and eaten, it could heal any organ in the human body ( Nielsen, 1969)."[TUCC]

"P. major was described in ‘Flora Danica’ by Simon Paulli in 1648 as a very efficient wound healing remedy. At that time it was so common in use that even small children knew about it. The nerves were pulled out of the leaves, and then the leaves were applied on the wounds morning and evening. For superficial wounds to heal, it was sufficient to apply the juice from the plant ( Brøndegaard, 1987). The English apothecary Nicholas Culpeper published ‘The Complete Herbal’ in 1649. The use of plants in the treatment of diseases was based on astrology. At that time people lacked other explanations as to why some plants had certain effects and others not. According to this theory P. major is under Venus: ‘It cures the head by its antipathy to Mars and the privities by its sympathy to Venus. There is not a martial disease that it does not cure’. About the medicinal effects he wrote: ‘It is good to stay spitting of blood and bleedings at the mouth, or the making of foul and bloody water, by reason of any ulcer in the reins or bladder’ ( Potterton, 1983)."[TUCC]

The remedy is of value in the internal treatment of all diseases of the blood. Scrofula, syphilis, specific or non-specific glandular disease, and mercurial poisoning.
It is also given in female disorders, attended with fluent discharges, and in hematuria, also in dysuria and some forms of passive hemorrhage. It would thus seem to possess marked astringent properties, as well as those of an alterative character.
The older physicians ascribe an active influence to it, in the cure of the bites of venomous serpents, spiders, and poisonous insects.
A simple but important influence is that exercised in tooth-ache. The juice on a piece of cotton applied to a tooth cavity, or to the sensitive pulp, has immediately controlled intractable cases of toothache. It seems to exercise a sedative influence upon pain in the nerves of the face, and relieves many cases of earache and tic-douloureux. [Ellingwood]


Seclect Activities (Plantain) [HMH Duke]
  • Antialzheimeran (1; COX; FNF);
  • Antiarthritic (1; COX; FNF);
  • Antibacterial (1; BGB; CAN); "...can be taken internally for bacterial infection..."[Davies HNHN]
  • Anticancer (1; COX; FNF; HH2);
  • Antiinflammatory (1; CAN; HH2; PNC; ZUL); [HMH Duke][BMWM]
  • "antihistaminic properties" [Dave HNHN]
  • Antimicrobials [BMWM]
  • Antipyretic (f; CRC; DEP);
  • Antirheumatic (1;FNF; PED);
  • Antitumor (1; COX; FNF; PED);
  • Aperient (1; FNF; PNC);
  • Astringent (1; BGB; DEP; JFM; KOM); [HMH Duke] Body system affinity - Skin [BMWM]
  • Bronchodilator (1;FNF; TGP);
  • Candidicide (1; FNF; PED);
  • Demulcent (1; BGB; CRC); [HMH Duke] Body system affinity - Skin [BMWM]
  • Diuretic (1; BGB; CAN; FNF);
  • Emollient (1; BGB;WAM);
  • Expectorant (1; BGB; FNF; PED);
  • Fungicide (1; CAN);
  • Hepatoprotective (1; BGB; CAN;FNF);
  • Immunostimulant (1; FNF; TGP);
  • Lactagogue (1; FNF);
  • Laxative (1; BGB; CAN);
  • Pectoral (f; CRC);
  • Stimulant(f; DEP);
  • Tonic (f; DEP; ZUL);
  • Uterotonic (1; BGB; CAN);
  • Vulnerary (1; FNF; JFM).
  • "...a wonderful immune stimulant..." [Dave HNHN]



Fatty Acids

  • 9-hydroxy-cis-11-octadecenoic acid (isomer of ricinoleic acid) (1.5%) of the seed oil [TUCC]
  • Arachidic acid [TUCC]


  • FAT Seed 54000-180000ppm [Dukephyto]
  • FAT Seed 100000-220800ppm [Dukephyto]
  • FIBER Seed 190000ppm [Dukephyto]
    • FIBER(CRUDE) Seed 190000ppm [Dukephyto]
    • FIBER(DIETARY) Seed 640000ppm [Dukephyto]
  • PROTEIN Seed 57000-190000 [Dukephyto]
  • PROTEIN Seed 188000 [Dukephyto]


  • ASH Seed 18600 62000 [Dukephyto]
  • GUM Seed 30000 100000 [Dukephyto]


  • arabinose [TUCC]
  • galactan [TUCC]
  • galactoarabinan [TUCC]
  • galactose [TUCC]
  • galacturonic acid [TUCC]
  • glucose, [TUCC]
  • fructose, [TUCC]
  • planteose [TUCC]
  • rhamnose [TUCC]
  • sucrose [TUCC]
  • xylose [TUCC]

Vitamins, Nutrients & Minerals

  • CALCIUM Seed 7020-23400ppm [Dukephyto]
  • CHROMIUM Seed 0.4 - 1.2 [Dukephyto]
  • COBALT Seed 0.8 - 2.5 [Dukephyto]
  • IRON Seed 5 - 18 [Dukephyto]
  • MAGNESIUM (Chemical element) Seed 318 - 1060 [Dukephyto]
  • MANGANESE (Chemical element) Seed 0.5 - 1.6 [Dukephyto]
  • NIACIN (Vitamin B3 - AKA. nicotinic acid)Seed 20-65ppm [Dukephyto]
  • PHOSPHORUS (Chemical element) Seed 180 600 [Dukephyto]
  • RIBOFLAVIN Seed (Vitamin B2) [Dukephyto]
  • SILICON (Chemical element - tetravalent metalloid)Seed 3 - 8.2 [Dukephyto]
  • SELENIUM (Chemical element - crystalline nonmetal)Seed 0.3 - 1 [Dukephyto]
  • SODIUM Seed (Chemical element - Metal) 180-600ppm [Dukephyto]
  • THIAMINE Seed (Vitamin B1)[Dukephyto]
  • ZINC Seed 0.8-2.5ppm [Dukephyto]
  • WATER Seed 700000ppm [Dukephyto]


  • ASCORBIC-ACID Seed [Dukephyto]
  • BETA-CAROTENE Seed [Dukephyto]
  • CHOLINE Seed [Dukephyto]
  • LINOLEIC-ACID Seed 25000 - 50000 [Dukephyto]
  • LINOLENIC-ACID (fatty acid) Seed 900 - 1800 [Dukephyto]
  • MUCILAGE Seed 75000 - 250000 [Dukephyto] 30% mucilage [McIntyre AHTC]
  • OLEIC-ACID (a fatty acid - monounsaturated omega-9 fatty acid) Seed 37000 - 74000 [Dukephyto]
  • PLANTEASE Seed 0 - 220 [Dukephyto]


Iridoid glycoside

  • ASPERULOSIDE Flower 2 [Dukephyto]


  • Citric acid [Ellingwood]
  • Oxalic acid [Ellingwood]
  • Resin [Ellingwood]

Fatty Acids

  • palmitic acid [TUCC]


  • APIGENIN Leaf (flavonoid) [Dukephyto]

Iridoid glycoside

  • 3,4-DIHYDROAUCUBIN Leaf [Dukephyto]
  • 6'-0-BETA-GLUCOSYLAUCUBIN Leaf [Dukephyto]
  • Aucubin (1.3% in dried leaves) [TUCC] - "...immunomodulatory activity at a concentration less than 5 mM..." [Ramawat NP]
  • CATALPOL (Leaf) [Dukephyto]


  • APIGENIN-7-GLUCOSIDE Leaf [Dukephyto]


  • BAICALEIN Leaf [Dukephyto]
  • BENZOIC-ACID Leaf [Dukephyto]
  • FUMARIC-ACID Leaf [Dukephyto]
  • HISPIDULIN Leaf [Dukephyto]
  • LUTEOLIN (flavone) Leaf [Dukephyto]
  • NEO-CHLOROGENIC-ACID (polyphenolic compound)Leaf [Dukephyto]
  • NEPETIN (O-methylated flavone) Leaf [Dukephyto]
  • OLEANOLIC-ACID Leaf (pentacyclic triterpenoid) [Dukephyto]
  • PLANTAGOSIDE Leaf (flavanone glycoside) [Dukephyto]
  • SCUTELLARIN (flavone)Leaf [Dukephyto]

Leaf Wax

  • free triterpene acids [TUCC]
  • oleanolic acid [TUCC]
  • ursolic acid [TUCC]
  • linear alkanes [TUCC]



  • ALKALOIDS Plant 1000ppm [Dukephyto]
  • Indicain [TUCC]
  • Plantagonin [TUCC]

Caffeic acid derivatives

  • Acteoside (found only in ssp. spleiosperma) [TUCC]
  • Caffeic acid - ethyl and methyl esters [TUCC]
  • Plantamajoside [TUCC]


  • apigenin 7-glucoside [TUCC]
  • baicalein [TUCC]
  • BAICALIN (Plant) [Dukephyto]
  • hispidulin 7-glucuronide [TUCC]
  • homoplantaginin [TUCC]
  • luteolin 6-hydroxy 4?-methoxy 7-galactoside [TUCC]
  • luteolin 7-diglucoside [TUCC]
  • luteolin 7-glucoside [TUCC]
  • nepetin 7-glucoside [TUCC]
  • plantaginin [TUCC]
  • scutallarein [TUCC]

Plant (Continued)

Iridoid glycoside

  • 10-hydroxymajoroside (aerial parts) [TUCC]
  • 10-acetoxymajoroside (aerial parts) [TUCC]
  • Acetoside (Phenylpropanoid glycoside)(Plant) [Dukephyto]
  • Aucubigenin (aglycon of aucubin) [TUCC]
    • Leaf (10000 ppm)[Dukephyto]
    • Plant (3700ppm) [Dukephyto]
    • Seed [Dukephyto]
  • Majoroside [TUCC]

Misc Chemical Compounds

  • ADENINE Plant [Dukephyto]
  • ALLANTOIN Plant [Dukephyto]
  • CAFFEIC-ACID Plant (hydroxycinnamic acid)[Dukephyto]
  • SORBITOL Plant (Sugar alcohol - AKA. glucitol) 15000ppm [Dukephyto]

Vitamins & Minerals

  • CALCIUM Shoot 860-1340 [Dukephyto]


  • ASCORBIC-ACID Plant [Dukephyto]
  • CHLOROGENIC-ACID Plant [Dukephyto]
  • CINNAMIC-ACID Plant [Dukephyto]
  • CITRIC-ACID Plant [Dukephyto]
  • D-GLUCOSE Plant [Dukephyto]
  • D-XYLOSE Plant [Dukephyto]
  • DI-O-METHYLGALACTOSE Plant [Dukephyto]
  • EMULSIN Plant [Dukephyto]
  • EO Plant 2000 [Dukephyto]
  • FERULIC-ACID Plant [Dukephyto]
  • GENIPOSIDIC-ACID Plant [Dukephyto]
  • GENTISIC-ACID Plant [Dukephyto]
  • GLUCORAPHENINE Plant [Dukephyto]
  • INDICAINE Plant [Dukephyto]
  • INVERTIN Plant [Dukephyto]
  • L-FRUCTOSE Plant [Dukephyto]
  • LIGNOCERIC-ACID Plant [Dukephyto]
  • LOLIOLID Plant [Dukephyto]
  • LUTEOLIN-7-O-BETA-D-GLUCOSIDE (glycosyloxyflavone) Plant [Dukephyto]
  • LUTEOLIN-7-O-BETA-D-GLUCURONIDE (flavone)Plant [Dukephyto]
  • MUCILAGE Plant [Dukephyto] "The protective effect of mucilage isolated from Plantago major leaves against aspirin-induced gastric ulcer has been demonstrated in rats.82" [PHPharm]
  • P-COUMARIC-ACID Plant (hydroxycinnamic acid, an organic compound that is a hydroxy derivative of cinnamic acid) [Dukephyto]
  • P-HYDROXY-BENZOIC-ACID (a monohydroxybenzoic acid, a phenolic derivative of benzoic acid - AKA. 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid) Plant [Dukephyto]
  • PHENOLCARBONIC-ACIDS (Phenolic acids)Plant [Dukephyto]
  • PLANTAGIC-ACIS Plant [Dukephyto]
  • PLANTAGONINE Plant (Alkaloid) 500 [Dukephyto]
  • PLANTEOLIC-ACID Plant [Dukephyto]
  • POTASSIUM Seed 2400 8000 [Dukephyto]
  • POTASSIUM-SALTS Plant 4600 [Dukephyto]
  • RESIN Plant [Dukephyto]
  • RHAMNOSE Plant (deoxy sugar) [Dukephyto]
  • SACCHAROSE (Sucrose - Sugar - Carbohydrate)Plant [Dukephyto]
  • SALICYLIC-ACID (monohydroxybenzoic acid, phenolic acid and a beta hydroxy acid)Plant 1 [Dukephyto]
  • SITOSTEROL (Phytosterol - AKA. beta-Sitosterol) Plant [Dukephyto]
  • SUCCINIC-ACID Plant (dicarboxylic acid) [Dukephyto]
  • SULFORAPHENE Plant (isothiocyanate ) [Dukephyto]
  • SYRINGIC-ACID Plant (O-methylated trihydroxybenzoic acid) [Dukephyto]
  • SYRINGIN Plant (glucoside of sinapyl alcohol. Also known as eleutheroside B) [Dukephyto]
  • TANNIN Plant 40000 57000 [Dukephyto]
  • TYROSINE Plant (non-essential amino acid) [Dukephyto]
  • TYROSOL Plant (phenylethanoid - phenolic antioxidant) [Dukephyto]
  • URSOLIC-ACID Plant (pentacyclic triterpenoid) [Dukephyto]
  • VANILLIC-ACID Plant (dihydroxybenzoic acid derivative) [Dukephyto]

4.1. Carbohydrates
The seeds contain the monosaccharides glucose, fructose, xylose and rhamnose as well as the disaccharide sucrose and the trisaccharide planteose...( Ahmed et al., 1965). Planteose acts as a reserve carbohydrate in the seeds ( Rohrer, 1972).
The outer seed coat contains polysaccharides that swell in contact with water and form mucilage with high viscosity. Polysaccharides extracted from the seeds with cold water are composed of 61% xylose, 13.2% arabinose and 24% galacturonic acid, and the hot water extract of the residue contains 78% xylose, 13.2% arabinose, 3% galactose and 6.2% galacturonic acid (Ahmed et al., 1965).
The trisaccharide raffinose (0.3 mg/g dry weight) and the tetrasaccharide stachyose (4.5 mg/g dry weight) have been isolated from the leaves. Stachyose acts as temporary carbohydrate storage in the plant (Chatterton et al., 1990).
Gorin (Gorin, 1966a and Gorin, 1966b) isolated polysaccharides composed of galacturonic acid, galactose, arabinose and rhamnose in addition to small amounts of glucose and xylose.[TUCC]

4.2. Lipids
"Fatty acids, both free and after hydrolysis of triglycerides, have been isolated from the seeds and are listed in Table 3. According to Ahmed et al. (1968) 64.8% of the fatty acids are unsaturated."[TUCC]

"Arachidic acid was isolated from P. major seeds only and not from any other Plantago species investigated. Most of the fatty acids present are generally found in plant seeds. One unusual hydroxyolefinic fatty acid, 9-hydroxy-cis-11-octadecenoic acid which is an isomer of ricinoleic acid was isolated by Ahmad et al. (1980). It is a minor constituent (1.5%) of the seed oil.
From the fresh leaves 0.18% lipids were isolated, and the distributions of the different fatty acids are listed in Table 4. The unsaturated fatty acids... and the saturated fatty acid palmitic acid were most abundant in the leaves."[TUCC]

"The major components of the leaf wax are the free triterpene acids, oleanolic and ursolic acid (see Other terpenoids), and the linear alkanes.... The chloroform extract was composed of about 63% triterpenic acids, 17% linear hydrocarbons, 1% linear alcohols and 19% unidentified compounds independently of the plants age (Bakker et al., 1998)." [TUCC]

4.3. Alkaloids
"P. major has been tested positive for alkaloids ( Rojas, 1968 and Smolenski et al., 1974). Schneider (1990) identified them as indicain and plantagonin."[TUCC]

4.4. Caffeic acid derivatives
"The ethyl and methyl esters of caffeic acid were isolated from the methanolic extract (Pailer and Haschke-Hofmeister, 1969), and chlorogenic and neochlorogenic acid were isolated from the aqueous extract (Maksyutina, 1971b). According to Noro et al. (1991) plantamajoside is the main caffeic acid derivative in P. major L., and only small amounts of acteoside (synonym to verbascoside) are present. Skari et al. (1999a) on the other hand isolated equal amounts of each compound from the 80% ethanol extract of the plant. According to Mølgaard (1986), plantamajoside and acteoside are not found together in the same plant. In Denmark, there are two subspecies of P. major, P. major ssp. major and ssp. spleiosperma. Plantamajoside is present in both subspecies, while acteoside is found only in ssp. spleiosperma ( Mølgaard, 1986). Plantamajoside is glycosylated with glucose to the central glucose while in acteoside it is glycosylated with rhamnose."[TUCC]

4.5. Flavonoids
"Several flavonoids have been isolated from P. major ( Table 5). According to Kawashty et al. (1994) the amount of each flavonoid isolated from Egyptian P. major can be ranged as follows: luteolin 7-glucoside>hispidulin 7-glucuronide>luteolin 7-diglucoside>apigenin 7-glucoside≈nepetin 7-glucoside>luteolin 6-hydroxy 4′-methoxy 7-galactoside. Skari et al. (1999b) isolated plantaginin and homoplantaginin in addition to several flavonoids having structures that have not been found in P. major earlier. Their structures remain to be published." [TUCC]

"Many flavonoids are antioxidants (Rice-Evans et al., 1996 and Bohm et al., 1998). Examples of such compounds in P. major are baicalein, hispidulin and plantaginin ( Yuting et al., 1990, Yokozawa et al., 1997 and Skari et al., 1999b). A number of flavonoids are also known to have free radical scavenging activity ( Kandaswami and Middleton, 1994). Baicalein, hispidulin, scutallarein and plantaginin are free radical scavengers and inhibit lipid peroxidation ( Sanz et al., 1994, Yoshino et al., 1997, Gao et al., 1999 and Skari et al., 1999b)." [TUCC]

4.6. Iridoid glycosides
"The iridoid glycosides isolated from P. major are listed in Table 6, and the structure formulas are given in Fig. 3. The major iridoid glycoside found is aucubin, but its content varies over the seasons. The highest aucubin level registered (1.3% in dried leaves) was in June. P. major contains less aucubin than P. lanceloata ( Long et al., 1995). Three unusual iridoid glycosides with 8,9 double bonds, majoroside ( Handjieva et al., 1991), 10-hydroxymajoroside and 10-acetoxymajoroside have been isolated from the aerial parts of the plant ( Taskova et al., 1999)."[TUCC]

Part: Leaf [HerbalMed3]

  • Acids Benzoic acid, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, fumaric acid, gentisic acid, phydroxybenzoic acid, neochlorogenic acid, salicylic acid, syringic acid, ursolic acid, vanillic acid;(1, 2) oleanolic acid and ascorbic acid.
  • Alkaloids Trace (unspecified),(3, 4) boschniakine and the methyl ester of boschniakinic acid(5)
  • Amino acids DL-a-Alanine, asparagine, L-histidine, DL-lysine, DLleucine, serine and tryptophan.(6)
  • Carbohydrates L-Fructose, D-glucose, planteose, saccharose, stachyose, d-xylose, sorbitol, tyrosol, mucilage and gum.(7)
  • Flavonoids Apigenin, baicalein, scutellarein, baicalin, homoplantaginin, nepitrin, luteolin, hispidulin and plantagoside.(8–10)
  • Iridoids Aucubin, aucubin derivatives, plantarenaloside, aucuboside and melitoside.(5, 11, 12)
  • Tannins 4%. Unspecified.
  • Other constituents Choline, allantoin, invertin and emulsin (enzymes), fat 10–20%, resin, saponins, steroids(13) and thioglucoside.


Common PlantainPlantago major [Turner, Kuhnlein]

Part:GreensPer 100 g fresh weight
Food Energy (Kcal)-Ash (g)1.7Potassium (mg)382
Water (g)-Thiamine (mg)-Magnesium (mg)22
Protein (g)1.6Riboflavin (mg)-Calcium (mg)241
Fat (g)-Niacin (mg)-Phosphorus (mg)41
Chloride (mg)191Vitamin C (mg)33.3Sodium (mg)-
Crude Fiber (g)1.6Vitamin A (RE)-Iron (mg)5.6
Zinc (mg)-Manganese (mg)0.4Copper (mg)0.1
Part:LeavesPer 100 g fresh weight
Food Energy (Kcal)61Ash (g)1.2Potassium (mg)-
Water (g)84Thiamine (mg)-Magnesium (mg)-
Protein (g)2.5Riboflavin (mg)0.28Calcium (mg)184
Fat (g)0.3Niacin (mg)0.8Phosphorus (mg)-
Carbohydrate (g)14.6Vitamin C (mg)8Sodium (mg)-
Crude Fiber (g)-Vitamin A (RE)252Iron (mg)-
Zinc (mg)-Manganese (mg)1.2Copper (mg)-
Part:SeedsPer 100 g fresh weight
Food Energy (Kcal)-Ash (g)4.6Potassium (mg)-
Water (g)11Thiamine (mg)-Magnesium (mg)-
Protein (g)17Riboflavin (mg)-Calcium (mg)-
Fat (g)7.6Niacin (mg)-Phosphorus (mg)-
Carbohydrate (g)59.5Vitamin C (mg)-Sodium (mg)-
Crude Fiber (g)13.7Vitamin A (RE)-Iron (mg)-


"Succeeds in any moderately fertile soil in a sunny position[200]. Although this species is a common garden weed, some named forms have been selected for their ornamental value[233]. An important food plant for the caterpillars of many species of butterflies[30]." [PFAF]

Propagation: "Seed - sow spring in a cold frame. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in early summer. A sowing can be made outdoors in situ in mid to late spring if you have enough seeds." [PFAF]
P. major is pollinated by wind, and large amounts of seeds are produced, up to 20 000 per plant ( Fægri, 1970 and Tutin et al., 1976). The seeds are quite small with an ovate shape (0.4–0.8×0.8–1.5 mm) and a slightly bitter taste. The seed endosperm has highly thickened cellulosic walls with the cell lumen filled with oil and protein. It forms the major part of the seeds and surrounds the embryo completely. The seeds are located in capsules (8–16 per capsule) and become sticky in humid weather due to the swelling of the polysaccharides present in the seed coat ( Qadry, 1963). In this manner the seeds can become attached to animals and humans and thereby be spread.[TUCC]


Uses of Related Sp.

"P. lanceolata extract from the fresh plant may fight colds (4 grams of herb to 1 cup boiling water), may alleviate symptoms of bronchitis and cough, and may reduce fever. "[Meuninck EWPUH]


Page last modified on October 13, 2023