Malus fusca - Pacific crab apple

[IFBC-Eflora] [Eflora]


Description
Malus fusca is a deciduous Tree growing to 12 m (39ft 4in) at a slow rate. It is hardy to zone (UK) 6 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in May. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.It is noted for attracting wildlife.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in heavy clay soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.[PFAF]

USDA Flower Colour: White
USDA Blooming Period: Mid Spring
USDA Fruit/Seed characteristics:

Colour: Yellow
Present from summer to fall [1.1]

Habitat/Range
Moist woods, stream banks, swamps and bogs in deep rich soils[60, 82], usually occurring in dense pure thickets[229]. Western N. America - Alaska to California.[PFAF]

Habitat: Moist to wet, open forests, streambanks, upper beaches, shoreline thickets, estuary fringes, swamps and bogs in the lowland zone.[IFBC-Eflora] Range: common on coastal islands and adjacent mainland; N to AK and S to CA. [IFBC-Eflora]


Ecological Indicator
A shade-intolerant. submontane to montane, Pacific North American shrub or broad­leaved tree. Occurs in cool mesothermal climates on wet to very wet. nitrogen-rich soils (Moder and Mull humus forms); its occurrence decreases with increasing elevation and continentality. Scattered in open­canopy forests on water-collecting sites; often inhabits brackish-water marshes and sites affected by ocean spray; rare on water-shedding sites. Characteristic of nutrient-rich wetlands. [1.2]


Hazards

Hydrogen Cyanide: All members of this genus contain the toxin hydrogen cyanide in their seeds and possibly also in their leaves, but not in their fruits. Hydrogen cyanide is the substance that gives almonds their characteristic taste but it should only be consumed in very small quantities. Apple seeds do not normally contain very high quantities of hydrogen cyanide but, even so, should not be consumed in very large quantities. In small quantities, hydrogen cyanide has been shown to stimulate respiration and improve digestion, it is also claimed to be of benefit in the treatment of cancer. In excess, however, it can cause respiratory failure and even death.[PFAF]


Edible Uses

Other Uses

Medicinal Uses
Oregon crab was employed medicinally by several native North American Indian tribes who used it to treat a variety of complaints[257].[PFAF] In particular, it gained a reputation with some tribes as a heal-all, especially useful for treating any of the internal organs[257].[PFAF] It is little, if at all, used in modern herbalism.[PFAF]


Nutritional

Crabapple –Malus [Only genus is mentioned] [Turner, Kuhnlein]

Part: Fruit Per 100 g fresh weight

Food Energy (Kcal)76
Riboflavin (mg)0.02
Ash (g)0.4
Water (g)79
Niacin (mg)0.1
Thiamine (mg)0.03
Protein (g)0.4
Vitamin C (mg)8.0

Sodium (mg)1
Fat (g)0.3
Vitamin A (RE)4
Potassium (mg)194
Carbohydrate (g)20
Calcium (mg)18
Phosphorus (mg)15
Crude Fiber (g)0.6


Cultivation
The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.It is noted for attracting wildlife. [PFAF]
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in heavy clay soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil. [PFAF]
An easily grown plant, it succeeds in most fertile soils, preferring a moisture retentive well-drained loamy soil[1, 200]. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Prefers a sunny position but succeeds in partial shade, though it fruits less well in such a situation[200]. A very ornamental plant[IFBC-Eflora], it is slow-growing in the wild[229]. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus[200]. The fruit is a good wildlife food source, especially for birds[200]. Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus[200]. [PFAF]
Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in the autumn in a cold frame. It usually germinates in late winter. Stored seed requires stratification for 3 months at 1°c and should be sown in a cold frame as soon as it is received[200]. It might not germinate for 12 months or more. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots as soon as they are large enough to handle. If given a rich compost they usually grow away quickly and can be large enough to plant out in late summer, though consider giving them some protection from the cold in their first winter. Otherwise, keep them in pots in a cold frame and plant them out in late spring of the following year. Cuttings of mature wood, November in a frame[11].[PFAF]
Wildlife: Willow grouse are said to be fond of wild crabapples, and were sometimes hunted at the same time the fruit was being harvested.[Turner, Kuhnlein]

Remediation


Synonyms


MALUS Apple


Local Species;

  1. Malus fusca - Pacific crab apple [TSFTK][PCBC][E-flora]
  2. Malus pumila - cultivated apple [E-flora]

Key to Malus

1. Main leaves (at least some) generally lobed; fruit 10–15 mm, oblong, yellow to generally purple-red or -black ..... M. fusca
1' Main leaves unlobed; fruit generally > 30 mm, round, ± red ..... M. pumila [Jepson2012]


References