LYCOPUS - BUGLEWEED

Family: (Mint family) [E-flora]

John M. Miller & Dieter H. Wilken

"Perennial herb from rhizome, glabrous or hairy. Stem: erect, branched or not. Leaf: short-petioled to sessile; blade generally ovate to lanceolate, margin toothed to deeply lobed or cut. Inflorescence: head-like in leaf axils. Flower: calyx generally 5-lobed, lobes ± equal, obtuse to short-awned; corolla ± bilateral, not 2-lipped, generally 4-lobed, lobes ± unequal; stamens 2, exserted, staminodes 2, minute, club-shaped; style exserted. Fruit: nutlets ± compressed, truncate to rounded, edges corky-thickened.
14 species: temperate North America, Eurasia, Australia. (Greek: wolf foot, from French common name) [Moon et al. 2006 J Plant Res 119:633–644]" [Jepson]


Local Species;

  1. Lycopus americanus - Cut-leaved water horehound [E-flora]
  2. Lycopus asper - Rough water horehound [E-flora]
  3. Lycopus europaeus - European horhound [E-flora]
  4. Lycopus uniflorus - Northern water horehound [E-flora][PCBC]

Cut-leaved Water Horehound - Lycopus americanus

[IFBC-E-flora]

[E-flora]

Habitat / Range
"Lake and stream margins and moist forest edges in the lowland and montane zones; frequent in C and S BC; E to NF and S to CA and FL." [IFBC-E-flora]

Origin Status: Native [E-flora]

Identification

"Lycopus americanus is a PERENNIAL growing to 0.5 m (1ft 8in). It is hardy to zone (UK) 4. It is in flower from Jul to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, flies. Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist or wet soil." [PFAF]

Synonyms

"General: Perennial herb from rhizome, without tubers; stems erect, 20-80 cm tall, slender, simple or branched, 4-angled, generally glabrous but nodes short-hairy." [IFBC-E-flora]
"Leaves: Opposite, oblong to lanceolate, 3-8 cm long, 1-3.5 cm wide, tips pointed, bases tapering to a short stalk, margins coarsely, irregularly and deeply toothed or cleft, lower teeth larger; uppermost leaves shallowly toothed to entire." [IFBC-E-flora]
"Flowers: Inflorescence of many head-like, axillary flower clusters; corollas tubular, 4-lobed, white, 2-3 mm long, about the length of calyces; calyx teeth 5, awl-like, short-awned." [IFBC-E-flora]
"Fruits: Nutlets, 4 clustered together, 1-1.5 mm long, 0.8-1.2 mm wide, 3-angled, corky-thickened on edges, smooth and broadly rounded at the top." [IFBC-E-flora]

USDA Flower Colour: White
USDA Blooming Period: Early Summer
USDA Fruit/Seed characteristics:

Colour: Brown
Present from Summer to Fall [USDA-E-flora]

Edible Uses

Other Uses

Medicinal Uses


Rough Water Horehound - Lycopus asper

Other Names: Rough bugleweed.[E-flora]

[IFBC-E-flora]

[E-flora]

Identification
"Lycopus asper is a PERENNIAL growing to 0.6 m (2ft). The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, flies.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soils.
It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist or wet soil."[PFAF]

Origin Status: Native [E-flora]

Synonyms Lycopus lucidus auct. non Turcz. ex Benth. p.p. Lycopus lucidus subsp. americanus (A. Gray) Hultén Lycopus lucidus var. americanus A. Gray[E-flora][PFAF]

Hazards 

Edible Uses

Medicinal Uses

Phytochemicals


European Horehound - Lycopus europaeus

[IFBC-E-flora]

[E-flora]

"General: Perennial herb from a creeping rhizome; stems erect, unbranched or with ascending branches, 30-100 cm tall, 4-angled, somewhat hairy." [IFBC-E-flora]
"Leaves: Opposite, egg-shaped to lanceolate, to 10 cm long, tips pointed, pinnately-lobed, the lobes triangular and pointed, the lower often lobed to the midrib; short-stalked." [IFBC-E-flora]
"Flowers: Inflorescence of many-flowered, distant clusters, in axils of bracts similar to leaves; corollas tubular, 4-lobed, white with a few small purple dots on lower lip, about 3 mm long and wide; calyces egg-shaped to bell-shaped, the teeth 5, lanceolate, hairy, spine-tipped." [IFBC-E-flora]
"Fruits: Nutlets, 4 clustered together, 4-angled, flat at the top." [IFBC-E-flora]

"Habitat/Range: Wet lakeshores, pond margins and riverbanks in the lowland zone; rare in SE BC (Salmo), common in SW BC, known only from the lower Fraser Valley; introduced from Europe." [IFBC-E-flora]

Hazards

Food Use

Medicinal Use

Phytochemicals

Pharmacology


Northern Water Horehound - Lycopus uniflorus

Other Names: (northern bugleweed)[E-flora]

[IFBC-E-flora]

[E-flora]

Habitat / Range
"Marshes, fens, and stream and lake margins in the lowland and montane zones; frequent in SW BC, less frequent northward and eastward; N to AK, E to NF and S to NC, AR and CA." [IFBC-E-flora]

Origin Status: Native [E-flora]

Identification
"Lycopus uniflorus is a PERENNIAL growing to 0.3 m (1ft). It is hardy to zone (UK) 5. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, flies.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist or wet soil." [PFAF]

"General: Perennial herb from a slender rhizome that is abruptly thick and tuber-like at tip; stems ascending to erect, 10-60 cm tall, simple or occasionally branched, finely to stiff-hairy, 4-angled." [IFBC-E-flora]
"Leaves: Opposite, elliptic to lanceolate, 2-8 cm long, 0.6-3 cm wide, gradually narrowed at tip and base, glabrous or minutely rough-hairy, margins coarsely and irregularly toothed; usually short-stalked; uppermost leaves not much reduced." [IFBC-E-flora]
"Flowers: Inflorescence of many head-like, axillary flower clusters; corollas tubular, 4-lobed, white or pinkish, 2.5-3.5 mm long, surpassing the calyces; calyx teeth 5, egg-shaped, soft, blunt to somewhat pointed at tips." [IFBC-E-flora]
"Fruits: 'Nutlets, 4 clustered together, 1-2 mm long, 0.8-1.2 mm wide, 3-angled, corky-thickened at edges, somewhat flat and finely toothed at the top." [IFBC-E-flora]

Edible Uses

Medicinal Uses


Uses of non-local Lycopus Sp.

"Unlike most members of the Mint family, the Bugleweeds don't have strongly aromatic foliage. They are of interest because they bear small edible tubers. These can be used like those of their cousins the Woundworts (Stachys). They are propagated in the same ways as those plants, and like the same growing conditions (see Stachys)." [Tozer UWP]

Hazards

Food Use

Medicinal Use

Phytochemicals

Cultivation

Propagation


References


Page last modified on Sunday, October 7, 2018 11:01 PM