Fraxinus latifolia - Oregon Ash

Family: Oleaceae - Olive Family [E-flora]

Red Listed species in B.C. [E-flora]

"Fraxinus latifolia is a deciduous Tree growing to 20 m (65ft 7in).
It is hardy to zone (UK) 6. It is in flower in April, and the seeds ripen in October. The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required) and are pollinated by Wind.The plant is not self-fertile."[PFAF]
"Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil. The plant can tolerate maritime exposure.
It can tolerate atmospheric pollution."[PFAF]

“Oregon ash is a native tree species found in North America along the Pacific coast. It is reported from California, Oregon, Washington and British Columbia (USDA 2010). In British Columbia, its origin status is unclear and it has been considered both native and introduced. It was first reported from Victoria in 1883 by John Mcoun, who considered that population introduced, but later reported by him from Cloverdale (1887, 1893), where he considered it native.(Ceska et al. 1984). In 1983, it was reported from the Port Alberni area, but the origin status of this population was not clear (Ceska et al. 1984). Earlier authors (e.g. Henry 1915) have concluded it was introduced, however, Douglas et al. (1999) included the species in the BC flora as a native species. Hebda (2004) points to the long presence of ash pollen in the fossil records for BC, indicating that its presence in BC is likely native. He says: "...the pollen record reveals that ash has been a native species for nine and half millennia, though it has never been abundant".” [IFBC-E-flora]

General: Deciduous tree up to 25 m tall; bark rough, grey-brown, with deep cracks at maturity, young twigs and leaves hairy to woolly." [IFBC-E-flora]

Habitat/Range: "Swamps and estuaries in the lowland zone; rare on W Vancouver Island; S to CA." [IFBC-E-flora]

Propagation
"The seed is best harvested green - as soon as it is fully developed but before it has fully dried on the tree - and can then be sown immediately in a cold frame[80]. It usually germinates in the spring[80]. Stored seed requires a period of cold stratification and is best sown as soon as possible in a cold frame[200]. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in a cold frame for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions or a nursery bed in late spring or early summer of the following year. If you have sufficient seed then it is possible to sow it directly into an outdoor seedbed, preferably in the autumn. Grow the seedlings on in the seedbed for 2 years before transplanting either to their permanent positions or to nursery beds."[PFAF]

Cultivation
"Prefers a deep loamy soil, even if it is on the heavy side[1, 200]. Most members of this genus are gross feeders and require a rich soil[11, 200]. Plants succeed when growing in exposed positions[200] and also in alkaline soils[11]. They tolerate atmospheric pollution[200]. A fast growing tree for its first 75 years in the wild, it then grows slowly reaching a maximum age of 250 years[229]. This species is closely related to F. pennsylvanica[200]. Dioecious. Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required." [PFAF]


Fraxinus Sp.- Ash

"± 65 species: temperate. North America, Eurasia, tropical Asia. (Latin: ancient name) [Little 1952 J Washington Acad Sci 42:369–380; Miller 1955 Cornell Univ Agric Exp Sta Mem 335:1–64] Fraxinus uhdei (Wenzig) Lingelsheim, Mexican ash, cultivated in western United States; similar to Fraxinus velutina, with ± larger leaves and leaflets, generally with stiff hairs to 0.5 mm bordering abaxial midvein and occasionally 2° veins abaxially (as occasionally in Fraxinus velutina), and ± larger fruit, but margins tapered to near base of fruit body; native northern Mexico to Honduras." [Jepson]

Local Species;

Ash - Fraxinus excelsior

Manna - Fraxinus ornus

Northern Ash - Fraxinus rhynchophylla

Ash - Fraxinus sp.

"Most ash seeds are winged fruits and all exhibit dormancy. Normally the winged fruits remain on the tree until late winter or early spring, when they are scattered by the wind."
"Collecting Seeds: Collect seeds in late fall before they blow away. When to Plant: The seeds lose viability in storage and should be planted a soon as possible after collecting. A fall planting might germinate the next spring. Breaking Dormancy: Some species of ash may take two years to germinate. Many ash seeds chilling them to help break down the seed coats. Flowering ashes, F.armericana and F.pennsylvanica, have less stubbornly dormant seeds and will often germinate well the spring following that have been stored, stratify the seeds for 2 1/2 to 3 months at 400F (40C).
Growing Conditions: Shade the seedbeds lightly for a few weeks after germination." [NSSH Bubel]

"FRAXINUS (Ash) BARK. Cold or Standard infusion 2-4 ounces to 3X a day." [Moore(1995)]


References