Practical ecological knowledge for the temperate reader.

Cymbalaria muralis - Ivy-leaved toadflax

Family: (Previously in Scrophulariaceae)

"Cymbalaria muralis is a PERENNIAL growing to 0.1 m (0ft 4in) by 0.4 m (1ft 4in).
It is hardy to zone (UK) 3 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from May to September, and the seeds ripen from Jul to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, self.The plant is self-fertile.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland). It prefers dry or moist soil." [PFAF]

"This is a tiny trailing vine that originates in the Mediterranean area. It is reported to have colonized Britain in 1640 (Farmer 2010). It is now found widely in North America (US: AR, CA, CO, CT, DE, HI, IL, IN, KY, MA, MD, MI, MO, NC, NE, NJ, NY, OH, OR, PA, SC, SD, TN, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV--CAN: BC, MB, NB, NS, ON, QC) (USDA 2010). In BC, it flowers in the spring (April/May) in disturbed sites in the southwestern corner of the province (southeastern Vancouver Island, the Gulf Islands, and the Lower Mainland)." [E-flora]

"General: Annual, biennial, or short-lived perennial herb; stems trailing or climbing, 10-80 cm long, rooting at the nodes, smooth, often purplish." [IFBC- E-flora]

Habitat / Range
"Mesic to dry waste places and rocky banks in the lowland zone; infrequent in the Gulf Islands and adjacent lower mainland; introduced from Eurasia." [IFBC- E-flora]
"Walls and other well-drained sites, shady rocks and woods, usually on calcareous soils[17, 50]. S. Europe. Naturalized in Britain." [PFAF]

Origin Status: Exotic. [E-flora]


Edible Uses

Other Uses

Medicinal Uses
"The herb is antiscorbutic and vulnerary[4, 7]. It is used externally as a poultice on fresh wounds to stop the bleeding[7]. There are reports that it has been used with success in India for the treatment of diabetes[4, 240]." [PFAF]

"Seed - surface sow March to June in a cold frame and do not exclude light. The seed usually germinates in 2 - 4 weeks at 18°c[164]. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out into their permanent positions in the summer. Division in late spring. Very easy, larger clumps can be replanted direct into their permanent positions, though it is best to pot up smaller clumps and grow them on in a cold frame until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the spring." [PFAF]

"Prefers a moderately good soil and some shade[1]. Plants usually self-sow freely[188] and can be invasive, especially when grown on old walls[200]. They succeed both on dry-stone walls and on old mortared walls[219]." [PFAF]



Cymbalaria Sp. - Toadflax

"Annual, perennial herb, glabrous to hairy. Stem: decumbent or vine-like. Leaf: proximal generally opposite, distal alternate, long-petioled; blade round to reniform, entire to palmately lobed; veins palmate. Inflorescence: flowers 1 in leaf axils. Flower: calyx lobes 5, deep, ± unequal; corolla tube with conic or cylindric spur at base, lower lip base swollen, closing mouth. Fruit: spheric; chambers dehiscent by several slits radiating from tip. Seed: many, generally ridged or tubercled.
± 8 species: especially Mediterranean. (Latin: round leaves)" [Jepson]

Local Species;

  1. Cymbalaria muralis - ivy-leaved toadflax [E-flora]


Page last modified on Wednesday, March 23, 2022 8:47 PM