Claytonia Sp. - Springbeauty

Montiaceae (Purslane family) - (Previously in Portulacaceae) [E-flora]

"Habit: Annual, perennial herb, from stolon, rhizome, tuberous root, or taproot, glabrous, +- fleshy. Leaf: entire; basal generally 0--many, rosetted; cauline generally 2, +- opposite, free, +- fused on 1 side, or fused into +- disk. Inflorescence: terminal, raceme, 1-sided; pedicel reflexed, in fruit erect. Flower: petals 5, pink or white; stamens 5; ovary chamber 1, placentas basal, style 1, stigmas 3. Fruit: valves 3, margins inrolling, forcibly expelling seeds. Seed: 3--6, generally black, generally appendaged."
"Species In Genus: 27 species: Central America, North America, eastern Asia, Siberia. Etymology: (John Clayton, colonial American botanist, 1694--1773)" [Jepson2012]


Local Species;

  1. Claytonia cordifolia - heartleaf springbeauty [E-flora][PCBC][TSFTK]
  2. Claytonia exigua
  3. Claytonia lanceolata - western springbeauty [E-flora][PCBC][TSFTK]
  4. Claytonia parviflora ssp parviflora- streambank springbeauty [E-flora]
  5. Claytonia perfoliata - miner's-lettuce [E-flora][PCBC][TSFTK]
  6. Claytonia rubra - redstem springbeauty [E-flora]
  7. Claytonia sibirica - Siberian miner's-lettuce [E-flora][PCBC][TSFTK]
  8. Claytonia washingtoniana- Washington springbeauty [E-flora]

Species Mentioned:


Edible Uses

Taproot 

The deep fleshy taproot of C. acutifolia and the corm of C. tuberosa have been used as potato substitutes. Raw, boiled, baked, or stir-fried. Large and fleshy. They may be stored in a root cellar for winter use. [Schofield] "Claytonia spp. (spring beauty); Portulacaceae—herbaceous perennials of temperate woodlands, subalpine meadows, prairies, N America, NE Asia; corms cooked and eaten by many peoples." [ETWP]

"The corms of the related C.megarhiza (syn. C.acutifolia) were gathered by the Wales area Eskimo of Alaska and eaten fresh, raw or cooked, usually with seal oil (Heller, 1976). The corms of another species, C.virginica were eaten by Iroquois and Algonquin peoples (Waugh, 1916; Black, 1980). The young leaves of this species are also known to be edible (Kindscher, 1987). The young, tender leaves of miner's-lettuce (C.perfoliata; syn.Montia)and Siberian miner's-lettuce, or Siberian sprijig-beauty (Claytonia sibirica;syn.Montia) are edible, but were apparently not a traditional food of Indigenous Peoples of British Columbia and Alaska. Some people have eaten them recently, however (Heller, 1976; Galloway, 1982; Turner et al., 1990)." [Turner, Kuhnlein]

Claytonia Sp.; "The small bulbs may be eaten raw, boiled, or roasted. They will improve the flavor of any stew." [Kirk WEP] "When collecting, keep only the largest corms and replant the others. At first, many find the corms distasteful, as they do take a little getting used to. The corms are high in starch and, when cooked, taste like potatoes. Boil or bake the corm for thirty minutes. Most species are not plentiful, so be conservative in your endeavor. They can also be dried on strings for long-term storage." [Vizgirdas WPSN]


Usage of Non-local Species;

Cultivation

Does well in rock gardens, especially when planted in moist soil in a shady location. [Schofield]

Growing Cycle: C. perfoliata; Miner's lettuce is an annual. It begins its growth in midwinter, sending up its flower stalk by early spring, and is usually dried and shrivelled by summer. [Nyerges]

Groundcover: C. perfoliata; "Although only an annual, this species makes an excellent ground cover in a cool acid soil under trees. In such a position it usually self-sows freely[208] and grows all year round[K]." [PFAF]

C. perfoliata; "Prefers a moist peaty soil[1, 60]. It is often found growing wild on sandy soils[264]. An easily grown plant, it can succeed on very poor and dry soils[52, 60]. Plants grow well the dappled shade of trees, producing a better quality crop in such a situation[52, 60, 264]. Although only an annual[208], it usually self-sows when well sited. A very hardy plant, tolerating temperatures down to at least -15°c. Miner's lettuce is occasionally cultivated as a salad plant[1, 46]. It's main value is as a reliable producer of leaves in the winter, though it can provide leaves all year round[141, 200, 264]. It can be grown as a cut and come again crop[183]." [PFAF]


Western Springbeauty - Claytonia lanceolata

[IFBC-E-flora]

 

[E-flora]


Identification

"Claytonia lanceolata is a PERENNIAL growing to 0.2 m (0ft 8in).
It is hardy to zone 5. It is in flower in March, and the seeds ripen in May. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)" [PFAF]

"Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil." [PFAF]

"Notes: Plants with stalked stem leaves from Vancouver Island and NW WA have been recognized as var. pacifica. Since plants with stalked stem leaves occur in populations of the species elsewhere in BC and WA this form does not appear significant. The yellow-flowered form (var. chrysantha), found just to the south of the BC border in NW WA was also shown to be synonymous with this species (Douglas and Taylor 1972)." [IFBC-E-flora]

Synonyms

Occurrence: "Rich woods, thickets, and moist slopes and subalpine meadows, from British Columbia to Newfoundland, north to central Alaska and the Yukon, and south in the United States to southern California and New Mexico in the West, and to Tennessee and North Carolina in the East. Var. carolinanais found in Canada from Ontario to Newfoundland, var.lanceolata from British Columbia to southwestern Saskatchewan, and var.tuberosafrom northern British Columbia to west central Yukon and central Alaska." [Turner, Kuhnlein]


Species Mentioned: "Spring-Beauty (Claytonia caroliniana;.. ;including vars. lanceolata and tuberosa, often considered as separate species, C.lanceolata and C.tuberosa)" [Turner, Kuhnlein]


Edible Uses

Root

Leaves - raw or cooked[61, 85]. [PFAF] "Leaves are edible raw or cooked; welcome addition to a mountain meadow salad" [Meuninck EWPUH]

Spring-beautyClaytonia lanceolata [Turner, Kuhnlein]

Part:TubersPer 100 g fresh weight
Food Energy (Kcal)-Ash (g)1Potassium (mg)-
Water (g)75Thiamine (mg)-Magnesium (mg)-
Protein (g)2Riboflavin (mg)-Calcium (mg)-
Fat (g)0.2Niacin (mg)-Phosphorus (mg)-
Carbohydrate (g)22.2Vitamin C (mg)-Sodium (mg)-

Propogation

"Seed - surface sow on a peat based compost in spring in a cold frame. Germination usually takes place within 2 - 4 weeks at 10°c[164]. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the cold frame for at least their first winter. Plant them out in late spring or early summer after the last expected frosts. Division of offsets in spring or autumn." [PFAF]

Cultivation

"Prefers a damp peaty soil and a position in full sun[1, 164]. Requires a lime-free soil[164]." [PFAF]


Claytonia perfoliata - Miner's Lettuce

[IFBC-E-flora]

 

[E-flora]


"Claytonia perfoliata is a ANNUAL growing to 0.2 m (0ft 8in).
It is not frost tender. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from May to July. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Flies, self.The plant is self-fertile." [PFAF]

"Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers dry or moist soil." [PFAF]

SUBTAXA PRESENT IN BC

Origin Status: Native [E-flora]

Habitat / Range

"Moist, sandy vernal sites, meadows, thickets and forests in the lowland, steppe and montane zones; frequent in SW and SE BC, infrequent in SC BC; S to SD, MT, UT, AZ and MX, also known from AK." [IFBC-E-flora]

Synonyms

Montia perfoliata. 2/3 Confidence [ThePlantList.org]


Edible Uses:

Medicinal Use

Cultivation

Remediation


Siberian miner's-lettuce - Claytonia sibirica

Other Names: Siberian springbeauty [E-flora]

[IFBC-E-flora]

 

[E-flora]


Identification

"Claytonia sibirica is an evergreen Annual/Perennial growing to 0.2 m (0ft 8in).
It is hardy to zone (UK) 3 and is not frost tender. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from Apr to July, and the seeds ripen from Jun to August. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, flies. The plant is self-fertile.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very acid soils. It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers dry or moist soil." [PFAF]

Origin Status: Native [E-flora]

Habitat / Range

"Moist streambanks, meadows, beaches, thickets and forests in the lowland, steppe and montane zones; common in and W of the Coast-Cascade Mountains S of 55degreeN, less frequent eastward; amphiberingian, S to MT, UT and CA; E Asia." [IFBC-E-flora]

Found in abundance near Beaver Pond in Port Alberni [2-(May 15, 2015)]


Ecological Indicator Information

"A shade-tolerant, submontane to montane, Asian and Pacific North American moss; its occurrence decreases with increasing continentality. Occurs in cool temperate and cool mesothermal climates on very shallow, calcium-rich soils. Inhabits coarse fragments, cliffs, or bark of trees in shaded forest understories. Characteristic of calcium-rich substrates. (IPBC)" [E-flora]


Edible Uses

"The stems, leaves and flowers are all edible and when eaten raw have a beet-like flavour, sweet and fresh with a very slight bitterness." [Crawford FFFG]

Medicinal Uses


Propagation

"Seed - sow spring or autumn in situ. The seed usually germinates rapidly." [PFAF]


Cultivation

"A very tolerant and easily grown plant, it prefers a moist peaty soil[1] and is unhappy in dry situations[K]. It succeeds in full sun[200] though is happier when given some shade and also grows in the dense shade of beech trees[88]. Plants usually self-sow freely[200, K]. This is an excellent and trouble-free salad plant. It is extremely cold-hardy and can provide edible leaves all year round in all areas of the country even if it is not given protection[K]." [PFAF]


Synonyms


References