Practical ecological knowledge for the temperate reader.

Antrodia Sp.

Family: Fomitopsidaceae [Wiki]

Species found in B.C.
  • Antrodia crassa [E-flora]
  • Antrodia gossypium [E-flora]
  • Antrodia sordida [E-flora]
  • Antrodia albida [E-flora]
  • Antrodia albobrunnea [E-flora]
  • Antrodia carbonica [E-flora]
  • Antrodia heteromorpha [E-flora]
  • Antrodia malicola [E-flora]
  • Antrodia serialis [E-flora]
  • Antrodia sinuosa [E-flora]
  • Antrodia sitchensis [E-flora]
  • Antrodia vaillantii [E-flora]
  • Antrodia variiformis [E-flora]
  • Antrodia xantha [E-flora]


"Antrodia are effused-resupinate, that is, they lie stretched out on the growing surface with the hymenium exposed on the outer side, but turned out at the edges to form brackets. When present, these brackets are typically white or pale brown. The pores on the surface of the hymenium may be round or angular. The context is white or pale. All species cause brown-rot. Typically, basidiospores are thin-walled, cylindrical, and narrowly ellipsoidal or fusiform in shape.[5] Most species grow on the wood of coniferous trees, except for A. albida, which grows on the dead wood of deciduous trees.[6]" [Wiki]

"Although several hundred fungi are responsible for decay of wood in use in buildings and other structures, the most common genera encountered are Antrodia, Coniophora, Gloeophyllum, Meruliporia, Neolentinus (formerly Lentinus), Oligoporus, and Polyporus (Haygreen and Bowyer 1996). Of these genera, Polyporus is the only one that is a white rot. Decay by brown rot accounts for the most extensive decay of wood in use, for example C puteana is considered responsible for approximately 90% of all internal decay of buildings in England (Eaton and Hale 1993)." [Esser IA]

Antrodia albida

"Summary: characterized by flat to shelf-like growth on hardwood, white pores that vary from pore-like to gill-like, white shelving cap that is matted to velvety and becomes zonate, and large spores; description derived from Gilbertson(1), except where noted; found in BC, WA, OR, ID, also NB, ON, PQ, YT, AK, AL, AR, AZ, CA, CT, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MO, MS, MT, NC, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NY, OH, PA, SC, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV, (Gilbertson)" [E-flora-1]

Habitat/Range: " annual; on hardwood, more rarely on conifer wood, common on dead branches on junipers; causes a brown rot (Gilbertson), all year (Buczacki)" [E-flora-1]

Synonyms and Alternate Names

Antrodia albobrunnea

"Summary: features include flat growth on conifer wood, uneven brown color, soft texture, with a distinct brown zone in the flesh next to the wood; description derived from Gilbertson(1); found in BC, WA, OR, ID, also AB, YT, AK, AZ, MT, WY, CO, UT, also USSR to central Europe and inner parts of the Scandinavian peninsula, (Gilbertson)" [E-flora-2]

"Habitat / Range annual, or sometimes reviving a second year, on conifer wood, seemingly most common on Pinus (pine), restricted to high altitude and areas with continental climate, causes a brown cubical rot, "white mycelial felts develop in the decayed wood" [E-flora-2]

Synonyms and Alternate Names Polyporus albobrunneus Romell Poria albobrunnea (Romell) D.V. Baxter Poria dichroa Bres. [E-flora-2]

Antrodia carbonica

"Summary: features include flat growth on wood, whitish pore surface, white amyloid flesh, weakly bitter taste, growth on Douglas-fir, and microscopic characters; description derived from Gilbertson(1); found in BC, WA, OR, ID, also AZ, CA, MT, NM, NV, "Western North America from Guatemala to British Columbia, also in North Africa and Himalaya Mountains", (Gilbertson)" [E-flora-3]

"Habitat / Range annual to occasionally perennial, on conifer wood, mainly Pseudotsuga (Douglas-fir), causes a brown cubical rot on conifer wood, "important in decay of mine timber and utility poles"" [E-flora-3]

Synonyms and Alternate Names Poria carbonica Overh. [E-flora-3]

Antrodia crassa

"Summary: features include perennial flat growth on wood, white to cream pore surface, white crumbly tissue under tubes, relatively broad spores, and other microscopic characters; description derived from Gilbertson(1); known from BC (J. Ginns, pers. comm,), WA, also ON, AK, MI, MT, NY, OH, PA, WI, inner parts of North and Central Europe, (Gilbertson)" [E-flora-4]

"Habitat / Range perennial, on conifer wood, causes a brown rot" [E-flora-4]

"Similar Species Antrodia sitchensis has a similar stratified fruitbody and may have resinous irregular bodies microscopically, but spores narrower, cystidioles have a prolonged neck rather than being ventricose, and weakly dextrinoid hyphae present in masses, (Gilbertson), Antrodia sordida has a similar stratified fruitbody and smay have resinous irregular bodies microscopically, but spores narrower, cystidioles absent or very rare, and weakly dextrinoid hyphae present in masses, (Gilbertson)" [E-flora-4]

Antrodia gossypium

"Summary: Features include flat annual growth on conifer wood, soft cottony consistency, small pores that are angular and white to cream, margin white and wide, sometimes with rhizomorphs, and microscopic characters. The name Antrodia gossypina is used commonly but is incorrect. The basionym was Poria gossypium Speg., using the noun 'gossypium' - 'cotton'. Because this epithet is a noun, it does not change its gender to agree with the genus. Thus Fibroporia gossypia (as used by Parmasto) is not a correct combination. The adjective 'gossypina' would be a permissible species epithet meaning 'pertaining to cotton' or 'cottony', an adjective which would agree with the gender of the genus. But that was not the name originally applied to the species by Spegazzini. (Dai(2)). The description derived from Gilbertson(1). Antrodia gossypium is known in BC from two collections, (J. Ginns, pers. comm.), and has been found in ON, AZ, CO, NY, PA, (Gilbertson)" [E-flora-5]

"Habitat / Range annual, on conifer wood; causing a brown rot, (Gilbertson), on dead and rotting conifer wood, perhaps all year but mainly fall, (Buczacki)" [E-flora-5]

"Similar Species Antrodia vaillantii is similar when rhizomorpha are present, but A. vaillantii has larger and wider spores, (Gilbertson)" [E-flora-5]

Antrodia heteromorpha

Antrodia serialis

"Antrodia serialis attacks logs and piles, causes heart rot in standing trees and occurs widespread, also in Himalaya and Africa (Seehann 1984; Breitenbach and Kränzlin 1986), rarely (1.4%) in buildings (Viitanen and Ritschkoff 1991a; Coggins 1980), within the roof area, in cellars and under corridors (Domanski 1972)." [Schmidt WTF]

Antrodia sinuosa

"Antrodia sinuosa is circumpolar in the boreal conifer zone, widespread in Europe, North America, East Asia, North Africa, and Australia (Domanski 1972). The species was in Sweden with ´ 1,045 damages between 1978 and 1988 with 13% portion the most common indoor polypore (Viitanen and Ritschkoff 1991a)." [Schmidt WTF]

Antrodia vaillantii

"The indoor polypores, especially Antrodia vaillantii, are resistant to copper mainly due to the formation of Cu-oxalate (Da Costa 1959; Sutter et al. 1983; Collett 1992a, 1992b; Schmidt 1995b; Chap. Humar et al. (2002) showed that A. vaillantii, Gloeophyllum trabeum and Trametes versicolor transformed copper(II) sulfate in wood into non-soluble and therefore non-toxic copper oxalate." [Schmidt WTF]

"An example with respect to brown-rot fungi is the successful laboratory and pilot-scale experiments by Leithoff (1997) to bio-leach chromium, copper and other elements from treated waste wood by means of Antrodia vaillantii... and the failure of the method using larger chip piles under practical conditions." [Schmidt WTF]

"Antrodia vaillantii occurs circumglobal in the coniferous forest zone and in Europe widely distributed, but rather rare in Fennoscandia. It is the most frequent fungus in British mines (Coggins 1980)." [Schmidt WTF]

"Laboratory experiments revealed that minimum moisture for wood decay by A. vaillantii was 29% and the optimum 52 to 150% (Table 8.7). With timber drying, Antrodia species were supposed to die (Bavendamm 1952c; Coggins 1980). However, more convincing seems that they only stop growth (Grosser 1985). In the laboratory, over 11 years were survived by “dryness resistance” (Theden 1972), so that fungi may come to life again." [Schmidt WTF]

Antrodia xantha

"Antrodia xantha (Domanski 1972) occurs in Europe and North America on fallen stems, ´ branches, stumps, in greenhouses (Findlay 1967), at windows (Thörnqvist et al. 1987), on timber in swimming pools and in flat roofs (Coggins 1980)." [Schmidt WTF]

Use of Related Sp.

Antrodia camphorata

"Antrodia camphorata is also called niu zhang zhi and red camphor mushroom and is a fungus unique to Taiwan. It grows inside the rotten heartwood of the camphor tree, Cinnamomum kanehirai, at a altitude of 1,350–6,000 feet. It has strong smell of yellow camphor and was primarily collected in the wild until very recently. Because this mushroom is rare, it is very expensive." [HealingMushrooms]

"It is known that the growth rate of some medicinal mushrooms, such as Antrodia camphorate, in the wild is very slow, and it is difficult to cultivate in a green house, thus, it is expensive to obtain fruiting bodies (Song and Yen, 2002)." [Rai PM]

"Antrodia camphorata extracts protect the liver against toxicity and liver fibrosis and they also demonstrate neuroprotective activities. The growth of a breast cancer cell line was inhibited by Antrodia camphorata extracts of fruiting bodies. The polysaccharides extracted from the fruiting bodies of Antrodia camphorata exhibit significant antiviral activity against the hepatitis B virus." [HealingMushrooms]

"AC-PS, a unique polysaccharide component purified from the mycelium of Antrodia camphorata, has pronounced antitumor effects on both in vitro and in vivo model. AC-PS alone does not show any direct cytotoxic effect to human leukemic U937 cells, even at high concentrations (200 mg/mL). However, AC-PS could inhibit the proliferation of U937 cells via the activation of mononuclear cells and elicits its antitumor effect by promoting a Th1-dominant state and NK cell activity (Liu et al., 2004)." [Peter C. Cheung]

"A unique polysaccharide component (AC-PS), isolated from Antrodia camphorate and mainly composed of (1 ! 3)-linked ß-D-glucopyranosyl residues, has revealed anti-tumor activity in both in vitro and in vivo models that might be due to the activation of host Immune response mononuclear cells, increasing interleukins production, proliferation of spleen cells, and cytolytic activity of them (Liu et al. 2004)." [Saeidnia, NANAD]

Fermented culture broth - Breast cancer cells MDAMB-231 - "Induction of apoptosis Inhibition of cyclooxygenase 2" [Rai MPBD] Breast cancer cells MCF-7 - "Induction of apoptosis by release of cytochrome c, activation of caspase 3, and generation of reactive oxygen species" [Rai MPBD] Ethyl acetate extract - "Hepatocarcinoma (Hep G2 and PLC/PRF/5) - Decrease of cell growth and induction of apoptosis" [Rai MPBD] "Hepatocarcinoma (Hep 3B) - Decrease of cell proliferation by induction of apoptosis through calcium and calpain-dependent pathways" [Rai MPBD]

Antrodia cinnamomea, A. malicola, & A. xantha

"In an investigation on antiangiogenic activities of several medicinal fungi, including Antrodia cinnamomea, Antrodia malicola, Antrodia xantha, Antrodiella liebmannii, Agaricus murrill, and Rigidoporus ulmarius, on VEGF-induced tube formation in endothelial cells (ECs), Chen et al. (2005) reported that polysaccharides isolated from A. xantha and R. ulmarius produce greater inhibition of endothelial tube formation compared to those from other fungi and polysaccharides isolated from A. xantha and R. ulmarius provide greater antiangiogenesis than those from commercialized A. murrill (Brazilian mushroom) and A. cinnamomea. Polysaccharides isolated from A. cinnamomea inhibit cyclin D1 expression through inhibition of VEGF receptor signaling, leading to the suppression of angiogenesis. Antrodia cinnamomea polysaccharides also block VEGF-induced migration and capillary-like tube formation of ECs on Matrigel (Cheng et al., 2005)." [Peter C. Cheung]

Journals of Interest

Chen, C.H., Yang, S.W. and Shen, Y.C. (1995) New steroid acids from Antrodia cinnamomea, a fungal parasite of Cinnamomum micranthum. J. Nat. Prod. 58(11), 1655–61

Geethangili, M. and Y.-M. Tzeng. 2009. Review of pharmacological effects of Antrodia Camphorata and its bioactive compounds. eCAM: nep108.


[E-flora] Antrofia,, Accessed April 3, 2019 [1]Antrodia albida,, Accessed April 3, 2019 [2]Antrodia albobrunnea,, Accessed April 3, 2019 [3]Antrodia carbonica,, Accessed April 3, 2019 [4]Antrodia crassa,, Accessed April 3, 2019 [5]Antrodia gossypium,, Accessed April 3, 2019 [6]Antrodia heteromorpha,, Accessed April 3, 2019 [Wiki] Antrodia,, Accessed April 3, 2019
Page last modified on Thursday, April 4, 2019 10:48 PM